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Hello, it’s IINO.
In this video, I would like to explain about Collection of CO2, which is a general environmental measure, not only for the shipping industry.
I have often talked about the decarbonization of the shipping industry on this channel and the goals and measures to reduce CO2 emissions are being updated daily.
Recently, there has been an international conference on climate change, COP 26, held in Glasgow, UK. It has been a lot of attention on the reduction targets, for greenhouse gas emissions of each country.
About Collection of CO2
It is important not to emit greenhouse gases in the first place, but how does it dealt that are being emitted now?
Is it still being released into the atmosphere? In fact, it is not all of CO2 emitted now, but it is surely collected.
And in October 2021, it was announced that Kawasaki Kisen and Mitsubishi Shipbuilding in Japan, in collaboration with ClassNK, had successfully conducted “the world’s first demonstration test of CO2 separation and collection on board a ship.”
This way of CO2 collection has been introduced in many places on land.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. is famous for its CO2 separation and collection facilities in Japan. It has installed collection equipment in 14 locations around the world, accounting for over 70% of the market share.
Thechnology of Separation and Collection of CO2
The way to separate and collect CO2 is that they get mix in a special liquid called amine to flue gas and heat it, then only CO2 is separated and recovered.
Recently, technology has been developed to trap CO2 in small, white spherical solid absorbents.
CCS and CCUS
In addition, the activity of CO2 separation and collection has been attracting attention under the name CCS or CCUS.
CCS stands for Carbon Dioxide, Capture, Storage and CCUS stands for Carbon Dioxide, Capture, Utilization and Storage.
Effective Utilization of CO2
Especially in recent years, “U” from Utilization in CCUS, which means effective utilization, seems to be attracting more attention since it has been developed technologically.
So, let me explain what kinds of things is CO2 being effectively used for.
For example, you would spray CO2 on vegetables and plants growing in plastic greenhouses. Also, you are able to covert CO into basic chemicals such as methane, methanol and olefins.
Storage of CO2
Next, let’s talk about the “S”, Storage, in CCS and CCUS.
Where is the collected CO2 stored?
It is sent to the seabed using pipelines and then pressurized into the ground to be trapped.
The idea is that if the geological formation is stable enough to contain oil and groundwater for a long time, it should be able to sequester CO2 for a long time.
However, there is a limit to the amount that can be stored.
At the current level of CO2 emissions, it is said that the world can store enough CO2 for 100 years, but it may be even less.
Development of Liquefied CO2 Ships
There is not so many geological formation where be able to stored CO2. Therefore, the area between CO2 capture and storage sites may not always close to each other.
If the storage area is 100 to 200 km away from the collection point, marine transportation will be cheaper than using pipeline.
Currently, there are only five liquefied CO2 ships in the world. All are managed by the Norwegian shipping company, Larvik Shipping.
They were originally operated for drinking gas and other purposes, but now started to be attracting worldwide attention as the commercialization of CCS continues.
And Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL) in Japan has invested in Larvik Shipping and entered the liquefied CO2 transportation business.
Now it is developing liquefied CO2 vessels in Japan.
EU has approved a law to increase CO2 emission reduction in EU in 2030 from 40% to 55% below the 1990 level.
In order to achieve this major goal, corporations, venture capitalists and other investors have begun investing in and partnering with CCUS companies.
The amount of funding raised by CCUS companies in 2021 is expected to triple from the previous year to reach USD 1.1 billion.
Currently, measures to combat climate change are being taken around the world.
In the first place, it is still important not to emit CO2, but as decarbonization, the effective utilization of CO2 in CCUS as explained here is especially noteworthy.
As I mentioned earlier, CO2 can be converted into methanol through the advancement of technology. There are ships that run on methanol which Maersk, the largest shipping company, has adopted this technology.
Personally, I think it is very interesting that it causes CO2 emissions virtually zero.
I would like to continue to provide information on decarbonization and collection and effective utilization of CO2 in the shipping industry.
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That’s all for now. Thank you very much!
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